C, C++, C#

C

C (pronounced see, like the letter C) is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and therefore found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix operating system. C is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, and there are very few computer architectures for which a C compiler does not exist.   Many later languages have borrowed directly or indirectly from C, including: C#, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Perl, PHP, Python, and Unix’s C Shell.

The most pervasive influence on these languages has been syntactical, and they tend to combine the recognizable expression and statement syntax of C with underlying type systems and data models that can be radically different. C++ stands out as having a design process that converged on nearly a superset of modern C, yet it provides greater type safety as well as object-oriented and generic programming functionality.

Several variants of the C language exist, and they continue to be refined by standards organizations. The original informal specification was published in a book by Dennis M. Ritchie and Brian W. Kernighan, and is referred to as “K&R” C. In 1989 the American National Standards Institute published a more formal description of “Standard C” called ANSI C (or “C89”), and the identical document was approved the next year by the International Organization for Standardization and dubbed “C90”. ISO released extensions to the standard in 1999 known as “C99”, and the latest stable specification is “C11” which was approved in December of 2011.

C++

C++ (pronounced see plus plus) is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, it adds object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. Originally named C with Classes, the language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator.

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains including systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games. Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, Microsoft, Intel and Embarcadero Technologies. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C# and Java. Other successful languages such as Objective-C use a very different syntax and approach to adding classes to C.

C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.

The language began as enhancements to C, first adding classes, then virtual functions, operator overloading, multiple inheritance, templates, and exception handling among other features. After years of development, the C++ programming language standard was ratified in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998. The standard was amended by the 2003 technical corrigendum, ISO/IEC 14882:2003. The current standard extending C++ with new features was ratified and published by ISO in September 2011 as ISO/IEC 14882:2011 (informally known as C++11).

C#

C# (pronounced cee sharp) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative and later approved as a standard by ECMA (ECMA-334) and ISO (ISO/IEC 23270:2006). C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure. C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.